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Rodent | Wikipedia audio article

Rodent | Wikipedia audio article


Rodents (from Latin Rodere, “to gnaw”) are
mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors
in each of the upper and lower jaws. About 40% of all mammal species are rodents
(2,277 species); they are found in vast numbers on all continents except Antarctica. They are the most diversified mammalian order
and live in a variety of terrestrial habitats, including human-made environments. Species can be arboreal, fossorial (burrowing),
or semiaquatic. Well-known rodents include mice, rats, squirrels,
prairie dogs, chipmunks, chinchillas, porcupines, beavers, guinea pigs, hamsters, gerbils and
capybaras. Rabbits, hares, and pikas, whose incisors
also grow continually, were once included with them, but are now considered to be in
a separate order, the Lagomorpha. Nonetheless, Rodentia and Lagomorpha are sister
groups, sharing a most recent common ancestor and forming the clade of Glires. Most rodents are small animals with robust
bodies, short limbs, and long tails. They use their sharp incisors to gnaw food,
excavate burrows, and defend themselves. Most eat seeds or other plant material, but
some have more varied diets. They tend to be social animals and many species
live in societies with complex ways of communicating with each other. Mating among rodents can vary from monogamy,
to polygyny, to promiscuity. Many have litters of underdeveloped, altricial
young, while others are precocial (relatively well developed) at birth. The rodent fossil record dates back to the
Paleocene on the supercontinent of Laurasia. Rodents greatly diversified in the Eocene,
as they spread across continents, sometimes even crossing oceans. Rodents reached both South America and Madagascar
from Africa and were the only terrestrial placental mammals to reach and colonize Australia. Rodents have been used as food, for clothing,
as pets, and as laboratory animals in research. Some species, in particular, the brown rat,
the black rat, and the house mouse, are serious pests, eating and spoiling food stored by
humans and spreading diseases. Accidentally introduced species of rodents
are often considered to be invasive and have caused the extinction of numerous species,
such as island birds, previously isolated from land-based predators.==Characteristics==The distinguishing feature of the rodents
is their pairs of continuously growing, razor-sharp, open-rooted incisors. These incisors have thick layers of enamel
on the front and little enamel on the back. Because they do not stop growing, the animal
must continue to wear them down so that they do not reach and pierce the skull. As the incisors grind against each other,
the softer dentine on the rear of the teeth wears away, leaving the sharp enamel edge
shaped like the blade of a chisel. Most species have up to 22 teeth with no canines
or anterior premolars. A gap, or diastema, occurs between the incisors
and the cheek teeth in most species. This allows rodents to suck in their cheeks
or lips to shield their mouth and throat from wood shavings and other inedible material,
discarding this waste from the sides of their mouths. Chinchillas and guinea pigs have a high-fiber
diet; their molars have no roots and grow continuously like their incisors.In many species,
the molars are relatively large, intricately structured, and highly cusped or ridged. Rodent molars are well equipped to grind food
into small particles. The jaw musculature is strong. The lower jaw is thrust forward while gnawing
and is pulled backwards during chewing. Rodent groups differ in the arrangement of
the jaw muscles and associated skull structures, both from other mammals and amongst themselves. The Sciuromorpha, such as the eastern grey
squirrel, have a large deep masseter, making them efficient at biting with the incisors. The Myomorpha, such as the brown rat, have
enlarged temporalis muscles, making them able to chew powerfully with their molars. The Hystricomorpha, such as the guinea pig,
have larger superficial masseter muscles and smaller deep masseter muscles than rats or
squirrels, possibly making them less efficient at biting with the incisors, but their enlarged
internal pterygoid muscles may allow them to move the jaw further sideways when chewing. The cheek pouch is a specific morphological
feature used for storing food and is evident in particular subgroups of rodents like kangaroo
rats, hamsters, chipmunks and gophers which have two bags that may range from the mouth
to the front of the shoulders. True mice and rats do not contain this structure
but their cheeks are elastic due to a high degree of musculature and innervation in the
region. While the largest species, the capybara, can
weigh as much as 66 kg (146 lb), most rodents weigh less than 100 g (3.5 oz). The smallest rodent is the Baluchistan pygmy
jerboa, which averages only 4.4 cm (1.7 in) in head and body length, with adult females
weighing only 3.75 g (0.132 oz). Rodents have wide-ranging morphologies, but
typically have squat bodies and short limbs. The fore limbs usually have five digits, including
an opposable thumb, while the hind limbs have three to five digits. The elbow gives the forearms great flexibility. The majority of species are plantigrade, walking
on both the palms and soles of their feet, and have claw-like nails. The nails of burrowing species tend to be
long and strong, while arboreal rodents have shorter, sharper nails. Rodent species use a wide variety of methods
of locomotion including quadrupedal walking, running, burrowing, climbing, bipedal hopping
(kangaroo rats and hopping mice), swimming and even gliding.Scaly-tailed squirrels and
flying squirrels, although not closely related, can both glide from tree to tree using parachute-like
membranes that stretch from the fore to the hind limbs. The agouti is fleet-footed and antelope-like,
being digitigrade and having hoof-like nails. The majority of rodents have tails, which
can be of many shapes and sizes. Some tails are prehensile, as in the Eurasian
harvest mouse, and the fur on the tails can vary from bushy to completely bald. The tail is sometimes used for communication,
as when beavers slap their tails on the water surface or house mice rattle their tails to
indicate alarm. Some species have vestigial tails or no tails
at all. In some species, the tail is capable of regeneration
if a part is broken off. Rodents generally have well-developed senses
of smell, hearing, and vision. Nocturnal species often have enlarged eyes
and some are sensitive to ultraviolet light. Many species have long, sensitive whiskers
or vibrissae for touch or “whisking”. Some rodents have cheek pouches, which may
be lined with fur. These can be turned inside out for cleaning. In many species, the tongue cannot reach past
the incisors. Rodents have efficient digestive systems,
absorbing nearly 80% of ingested energy. When eating cellulose, the food is softened
in the stomach and passed to the cecum, where bacteria reduce it to its carbohydrate elements. The rodent then practices coprophagy, eating
its own fecal pellets, so the nutrients can be absorbed by the gut. Rodents therefore often produce a hard and
dry fecal pellet. In many species, the penis contains a bone,
the baculum; the testes can be located either abdominally or at the groin.Sexual dimorphism
occurs in many rodent species. In some rodents, males are larger than females,
while in others the reverse is true. Male-bias sexual dimorphism is typical for
ground squirrels, kangaroo rats, solitary mole rats and pocket gophers; it likely developed
due to sexual selection and greater male-male combat. Female-bias sexual dimorphism exists among
chipmunks and jumping mice. It is not understood why this pattern occurs,
but in the case of yellow-pine chipmunks, males may have selected larger females due
to their greater reproductive success. In some species, such as voles, sexual dimorphism
can vary from population to population. In bank voles, females are typically larger
than males, but male-bias sexual dimorphism occurs in alpine populations, possibly because
of the lack of predators and greater competition between males.==Distribution and habitat==One of the most widespread groups of mammals,
rodents can be found on every continent except Antarctica. They are the only terrestrial placental mammals
to have colonized Australia and New Guinea without human intervention. Humans have also allowed the animals to spread
to many remote oceanic islands (e.g., the Polynesian rat). Rodents have adapted to almost every terrestrial
habitat, from cold tundra (where they can live under snow) to hot deserts. Some species such as tree squirrels and New
World porcupines are arboreal, while some, such as gophers, tuco-tucos, and mole rats,
live almost completely underground, where they build complex burrow systems. Others dwell on the surface of the ground,
but may have a burrow into which they can retreat. Beavers and muskrats are known for being semiaquatic,
but the rodent best-adapted for aquatic life is probably the earless water rat from New
Guinea. Rodents have also thrived in human-created
environments such as agricultural and urban areas. Though some species are common pests for humans,
rodents also play important ecological roles. Some rodents are considered keystone species
and ecosystem engineers in their respective habitats. In the Great Plains of North America, the
burrowing activities of prairie dogs play important roles in soil aeration and nutrient
redistribution, raising the organic content of the soil and increasing the absorption
of water. They maintain these grassland habitats, and
some large herbivores such as bison and pronghorn prefer to graze near prairie dog colonies
due to the increased nutritional quality of forage.Extirpation of prairie dogs can also
contribute to regional and local biodiversity loss, increased seed depredation, and the
establishment and spread of invasive shrubs. Burrowing rodents may eat the fruiting bodies
of fungi and spread spores through their feces, thereby allowing the fungi to disperse and
form symbiotic relationships with the roots of plants (which usually cannot thrive without
them). As such, these rodents may play a role in
maintaining healthy forests.In many temperate regions, beavers play an essential hydrological
role. When building their dams and lodges, beavers
alter the paths of streams and rivers and allow for the creation of extensive wetland
habitats. One study found that engineering by beavers
leads to a 33 percent increase in the number of herbaceous plant species in riparian areas. Another study found that beavers increase
wild salmon populations.==Behavior and life history=====
Feeding===Most rodents are herbivorous, feeding exclusively
on plant material such as seeds, stems, leaves, flowers, and roots. Some are omnivorous and a few are predators. The field vole is a typical herbivorous rodent
and feeds on grasses, herbs, root tubers, moss, and other vegetation, and gnaws on bark
during the winter. It occasionally eats invertebrates such as
insect larvae. The plains pocket gopher eats plant material
found underground during tunneling, and also collects grasses, roots, and tubers in its
cheek pouches and caches them in underground larder chambers.The Texas pocket gopher avoids
emerging onto the surface to feed by seizing the roots of plants with its jaws and pulling
them downwards into its burrow. It also practices coprophagy. The African pouched rat forages on the surface,
gathering anything that might be edible into its capacious cheek pouches until its face
bulges out sideways. It then returns to its burrow to sort through
the material it has gathered and eats the nutritious items.Agouti species are one of
the few animal groups that can break open the large capsules of the Brazil nut fruit. Too many seeds are inside to be consumed in
one meal, so the agouti carries some off and caches them. This helps dispersal of the seeds as any that
the agouti fails to retrieve are distant from the parent tree when they germinate. Other nut-bearing trees tend to bear a glut
of fruits in the autumn. These are too numerous to be eaten in one
meal and squirrels gather and store the surplus in crevices and hollow trees. In desert regions, seeds are often available
only for short periods. The kangaroo rat collects all it can find
and stores them in larder chambers in its burrow. A strategy for dealing with seasonal plenty
is to eat as much as possible and store the surplus nutrients as fat. Marmots do this, and may be 50% heavier in
the autumn than in the spring. They rely on their fat reserves during their
long winter hibernation. Beavers feed on the leaves, buds, and inner
bark of growing trees, as well as aquatic plants. They store food for winter use by felling
small trees and leafy branches in the autumn and immersing them in their pond, sticking
the ends into the mud to anchor them. Here, they can access their food supply underwater
even when their pond is frozen over.Although rodents have been regarded traditionally as
herbivores, a number of species opportunistically include insects, fish, or meat in their diets
and more specialized forms rely on such foods. A functional-morphological study of the rodent
tooth system supports the idea that primitive rodents were omnivores rather than herbivores. Studies of the literature show that numerous
members of the Sciuromorpha and Myomorpha, and a few members of the Hystricomorpha, have
either included animal matter in their diets or been prepared to eat such food when offered
it in captivity. Examination of the stomach contents of the
North American white-footed mouse, normally considered to be herbivorous, showed 34% animal
matter.More specialized carnivores include the shrewlike rats of the Philippines, which
feed on insects and soft-bodied invertebrates, and the Australian water rat, which devours
aquatic insects, fish, crustaceans, mussels, snails, frogs, birds’ eggs, and water birds. The grasshopper mouse from dry regions of
North America feeds on insects, scorpions, and other small mice, and only a small part
of its diet is plant material. It has a chunky body with short legs and tail,
but is agile and can easily overpower prey as large as itself.===Social behavior===Rodents exhibit a wide range of types of social
behavior ranging from the mammalian caste system of the naked mole-rat, the extensive
“town” of the colonial prairie dog, through family groups to the independent, solitary
life of the edible dormouse. Adult dormice may have overlapping feeding
ranges, but they live in individual nests and feed separately, coming together briefly
in the breeding season to mate. The pocket gopher is also a solitary animal
outside the breeding season, each individual digging a complex tunnel system and maintaining
a territory.Larger rodents tend to live in family units where parents and their offspring
live together until the young disperse. Beavers live in extended family units typically
with a pair of adults, this year’s kits, the previous year’s offspring, and sometimes older
young. Brown rats usually live in small colonies
with up to six females sharing a burrow and one male defending a territory around the
burrow. At high population densities, this system
breaks down and males show a hierarchical system of dominance with overlapping ranges. Female offspring remain in the colony while
male young disperse. The prairie vole is monogamous and forms a
lifelong pair bond. Outside the breeding season, prairie voles
live in close proximity with others in small colonies. A male is not aggressive towards other males
until he has mated, after which time he defends a territory, a female, and a nest against
other males. The pair huddles together, grooms one another,
and shares nesting and pup-raising responsibilities. Among the most social of rodents are the ground
squirrels, which typically form colonies based on female kinship, with males dispersing after
weaning and becoming nomadic as adults. Cooperation in ground squirrels varies between
species and typically includes making alarm calls, defending territories, sharing food,
protecting nesting areas, and preventing infanticide. The black-tailed prairie dog forms large towns
that may cover many hectares. The burrows do not interconnect, but are excavated
and occupied by territorial family groups known as coteries. A coterie often consists of an adult male,
three or four adult females, several nonbreeding yearlings, and the current year’s offspring. Individuals within coteries are friendly with
each other, but hostile towards outsiders.Perhaps the most extreme examples of colonial behavior
in rodents are the eusocial naked mole rat and Damaraland mole rat. The naked mole rat lives completely underground
and can form colonies of up to 80 individuals. Only one female and up to three males in the
colony reproduce, while the rest of the members are smaller and sterile, and function as workers. Some individuals are of intermediate size. They help with the rearing of the young and
can take the place of a reproductive if one dies. The Damaraland mole rat is characterized by
having a single reproductively active male and female in a colony where the remaining
animals are not truly sterile, but become fertile only if they establish a colony of
their own.===Communication=======Olfactory====Rodents use scent marking in many social contexts
including inter- and intra-species communication, the marking of trails and the establishment
of territories. Their urine provides genetic information about
individuals including the species, the sex and individual identity, and metabolic information
on dominance, reproductive status and health. Compounds derived from the major histocompatibility
complex (MHC) are bound to several urinary proteins. The odor of a predator depresses scent-marking
behavior.Rodents are able to recognize close relatives by smell and this allows them to
show nepotism (preferential behavior toward their kin) and also avoid inbreeding. This kin recognition is by olfactory cues
from urine, feces and glandular secretions. The main assessment may involve the MHC, where
the degree of relatedness of two individuals is correlated to the MHC genes they have in
common. In non-kin communication, where more permanent
odor markers are required, as at territorial borders, then non-volatile major urinary proteins
(MUPs), which function as pheromone transporters, may also be used. MUPs may also signal individual identity,
with each male house mouse (Mus musculus) excreting urine containing about a dozen genetically
encoded MUPs.House mice deposit urine, which contains pheromones, for territorial marking,
individual and group recognition, and social organization Territorial beavers and red squirrels
investigate and become familiar with the scents of their neighbors and respond less aggressively
to intrusions by them than to those made by non-territorial “floaters” or strangers. This is known as the “dear enemy effect”.====Auditory====Many rodent species, particularly those that
are diurnal and social, have a wide range of alarm calls that are emitted when they
perceive threats. There are both direct and indirect benefits
of doing this. A potential predator may stop when it knows
it has been detected, or an alarm call can allow conspecifics or related individuals
to take evasive action. Several species, for example prairie dogs,
have complex anti-predator alarm call systems. These species may have different calls for
different predators (e.g. aerial predators or ground-based predators) and each call contains
information about the nature of the precise threat. The urgency of the threat is also conveyed
by the acoustic properties of the call.Social rodents have a wider range of vocalizations
than do solitary species. Fifteen different call-types have been recognized
in adult Kataba mole rats and four in juveniles. Similarly, the common degu, another social,
burrowing rodent, exhibits a wide array of communication methods and has an elaborate
vocal repertoire comprising fifteen different categories of sound. Ultrasonic calls play a part in social communication
between dormice and are used when the individuals are out of sight of each other.House mice
use both audible and ultrasonic calls in a variety of contexts. Audible vocalizations can often be heard during
agonistic or aggressive encounters, whereas ultrasound is used in sexual communication
and also by pups when they have fallen out of the nest. Laboratory rats (which are brown rats, Rattus
norvegicus) emit short, high frequency, ultrasonic vocalizations during purportedly pleasurable
experiences such as rough-and-tumble play, when anticipating routine doses of morphine,
during mating, and when tickled. The vocalization, described as a distinct
“chirping”, has been likened to laughter, and is interpreted as an expectation of something
rewarding. In clinical studies, the chirping is associated
with positive emotional feelings, and social bonding occurs with the tickler, resulting
in the rats becoming conditioned to seek the tickling. However, as the rats age, the tendency to
chirp declines. Like most rat vocalizations, the chirping
is at frequencies too high for humans to hear without special equipment, so bat detectors
have been used for this purpose.====Visual====
Rodents, like all placental mammals except primates, have just two types of light receptive
cones in their retina, a short wavelength “blue-UV” type and a middle wavelength “green”
type. They are therefore classified as dichromats;
however, they are visually sensitive into the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and therefore
can see light that humans can not. The functions of this UV sensitivity are not
always clear. In degus, for example, the belly reflects
more UV light than the back. Therefore, when a degu stands up on its hind
legs, which it does when alarmed, it exposes its belly to other degus and ultraviolet vision
may serve a purpose in communicating the alarm. When it stands on all fours, its low UV-reflectance
back could help make the degu less visible to predators. Ultraviolet light is abundant during the day
but not at night. There is a large increase in the ratio of
ultraviolet to visible light in the morning and evening twilight hours. Many rodents are active during twilight hours
(crepuscular activity), and UV-sensitivity would be advantageous at these times. Ultraviolet reflectivity is of dubious value
for nocturnal rodents.The urine of many rodents (e.g. voles, degus, mice, rats) strongly reflects
UV light and this may be used in communication by leaving visible as well as olfactory markings. However, the amount of UV that is reflected
decreases with time, which in some circumstances can be disadvantageous; the common kestrel
can distinguish between old and fresh rodent trails and has greater success hunting over
more recently marked routes.====Tactile====Vibrations can provide cues to conspecifics
about specific behaviors being performed, predator warning and avoidance, herd or group
maintenance, and courtship. The Middle East blind mole rat was the first
mammal for which seismic communication was documented. These fossorial rodents bang their head against
the walls of their tunnels. This behavior was initially interpreted as
part of their tunnel building behavior, but it was eventually realized that they generate
temporally patterned seismic signals for long-distance communication with neighboring mole rats.Footdrumming
is used widely as a predator warning or defensive action. It is used primarily by fossorial or semi-fossorial
rodents. The banner-tailed kangaroo rat produces several
complex footdrumming patterns in a number of different contexts, one of which is when
it encounters a snake. The footdrumming may alert nearby offspring
but most likely conveys that the rat is too alert for a successful attack, thus preventing
the snake’s predatory pursuit. Several studies have indicated intentional
use of ground vibrations as a means of intra-specific communication during courtship among the Cape
mole rat. Footdrumming has been reported to be involved
in male-male competition; the dominant male indicates its resource holding potential by
drumming, thus minimizing physical contact with potential rivals.===Mating strategies===Some species of rodent are monogamous, with
an adult male and female forming a lasting pair bond. Monogamy can come in two forms; obligate and
facultative. In obligate monogamy, both parents care for
the offspring and play an important part in their survival. This occurs in species such as California
mice, oldfield mice, Malagasy giant rats and beavers. In these species, males usually mate only
with their partners. In addition to increased care for young, obligate
monogamy can also be beneficial to the adult male as it decreases the chances of never
finding a mate or mating with an infertile female. In facultative monogamy, the males do not
provide direct parental care and stay with one female because they cannot access others
due to being spatially dispersed. Prairie voles appear to be an example of this
form of monogamy, with males guarding and defending females within their vicinity.In
polygynous species, males will try to monopolize and mate with multiple females. As with monogamy, polygyny in rodents can
come in two forms; defense and non-defense. Defense polygyny involves males controlling
territories that contain resources that attract females. This occurs in ground squirrels like yellow-bellied
marmots, California ground squirrels, Columbian ground squirrels and Richardson’s ground squirrels. Males with territories are known as “resident”
males and the females that live within the territories are known as “resident” females. In the case of marmots, resident males do
not appear to ever lose their territories and always win encounters with invading males. Some species are also known to directly defend
their resident females and the ensuing fights can lead to severe wounding. In species with non-defense polygyny, males
are not territorial and wander widely in search of females to monopolize. These males establish dominance hierarchies,
with the high-ranking males having access to the most females. This occurs in species like Belding’s ground
squirrels and some tree squirrel species. Promiscuity, in which both males and females
mate with multiple partners, also occurs in rodents. In species such as the white-footed mouse,
females give birth to litters with multiple paternities. Promiscuity leads to increased sperm competition
and males tend to have larger testicles. In the Cape ground squirrel, the male’s testes
can be 20 percent of its head-body length. Several rodent species have flexible mating
systems that can vary between monogamy, polygyny and promiscuity.Female rodents play an active
role in choosing their mates. Factors that contribute to female preference
may include the size, dominance and spatial ability of the male. In the eusocial naked mole rats, a single
female monopolizes mating from at least three males.In most rodent species, such as brown
rats and house mice, ovulation occurs on a regular cycle while in others, such as voles,
it is induced by mating. During copulation, males of some rodent species
deposit a mating plug in the female’s genital opening, both to prevent sperm leakage and
to protect against other males inseminating the female. Females can remove the plug and may do so
either immediately or after several hours.===Birth and parenting===Rodents may be born either altricial (blind,
hairless and relatively underdeveloped) or precocial (mostly furred, eyes open and fairly
developed) depending on the species. The altricial state is typical for squirrels
and mice, while the precocial state usually occurs in species like guinea pigs and porcupines. Females with altricial young typically build
elaborate nests before they give birth and maintain them until their offspring are weaned. The female gives birth sitting or lying down
and the young emerge in the direction she is facing. The newborns first venture out of the nest
a few days after they have opened their eyes and initially keep returning regularly. As they get older and more developed, they
visit the nest less often and leave permanently when weaned.In precocial species, the mothers
invest little in nest building and some do not build nests at all. The female gives birth standing and the young
emerge behind her. Mothers of these species maintain contact
with their highly mobile young with maternal contact calls. Though relatively independent and weaned within
days, precocial young may continue to nurse and be groomed by their mothers. Rodent litter sizes also vary and females
with smaller litters spend more time in the nest than those with larger litters. Mother rodents provide both direct parental
care, such as nursing, grooming, retrieving and huddling, and indirect parenting, such
as food caching, nest building and protection to their offspring. In many social species, young may be cared
for by individuals other than their parents, a practice known as alloparenting or cooperative
breeding. This is known to occur in black-tailed prairie
dogs and Belding’s ground squirrels, where mothers have communal nests and nurse unrelated
young along with their own. There is some question as to whether these
mothers can distinguish which young are theirs. In the Patagonian mara, young are also placed
in communal warrens, but mothers do not permit youngsters other than their own to nurse.Infanticide
exists in numerous rodent species and may be practiced by adult conspecifics of either
sex. Several reasons have been proposed for this
behavior, including nutritional stress, resource competition, avoiding misdirecting parental
care and, in the case of males, attempting to make the mother sexually receptive. The latter reason is well supported in primates
and lions but less so in rodents. Infanticide appears to be widespread in black-tailed
prairie dogs, including infanticide from invading males and immigrant females, as well as occasional
cannibalism of an individual’s own offspring. To protect against infanticide from other
adults, female rodents may employ avoidance or direct aggression against potential perpetrators,
multiple mating, territoriality or early termination of pregnancy. Feticide can also occur among rodents; in
Alpine marmots, dominant females tend to suppress the reproduction of subordinates by being
antagonistic towards them while they are pregnant. The resulting stress causes the fetuses to
abort.===Intelligence===Rodents have advanced cognitive abilities. They can quickly learn to avoid poisoned baits,
which makes them difficult pests to deal with. Guinea pigs can learn and remember complex
pathways to food. Squirrels and kangaroo rats are able to locate
caches of food by spatial memory, rather than just by smell.Because laboratory mice (house
mice) and rats (brown rats) are widely used as scientific models to further our understanding
of biology, a great deal has come to be known about their cognitive capacities. Brown rats exhibit cognitive bias, where information
processing is biased by whether they are in a positive or negative affective state. For example, laboratory rats trained to respond
to a specific tone by pressing a lever to receive a reward, and to press another lever
in response to a different tone so as to avoid receiving an electric shock, are more likely
to respond to an intermediate tone by choosing the reward lever if they have just been tickled
(something they enjoy), indicating “a link between the directly measured positive affective
state and decision making under uncertainty in an animal model.”Laboratory (brown) rats
may have the capacity for metacognition—to consider their own learning and then make
decisions based on what they know, or do not know, as indicated by choices they make apparently
trading off difficulty of tasks and expected rewards, making them the first animals other
than primates known to have this capacity, but these findings are disputed, since the
rats may have been following simple operant conditioning principles, or a behavioral economic
model. Brown rats use social learning in a wide range
of situations, but perhaps especially so in acquiring food preferences.==Classification and evolution=====Evolutionary history===Dentition is the key feature by which fossil
rodents are recognized and the earliest record of such mammals comes from the Paleocene,
shortly after the extinction of the non-avian dinosaurs some 66 million years ago. These fossils are found in Laurasia, the supercontinent
composed of modern-day North America, Europe, and Asia. The divergence of Glires, a clade consisting
of rodents and lagomorphs (rabbits, hares and pikas), from other placental mammals occurred
within a few million years after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary; rodents and lagomorphs then radiated
during the Cenozoic. Some molecular clock data suggest modern rodents
(members of the order Rodentia) had appeared by the late Cretaceous, although other molecular
divergence estimations are in agreement with the fossil record.Rodents are thought to have
evolved in Asia, where local multituberculate faunas were severely affected by the Cretaceous–Paleogene
extinction event and never fully recovered, unlike their North American and European relatives. In the resulting ecological vacuum, rodents
and other Glires were able to evolve and diversify, taking the niches left by extinct multituberculates. The correlation between the spread of rodents
and the demise of multituberculates is a controversial topic, not fully resolved. American and European multituberculate assemblages
do decline in diversity in correlation with the introduction of rodents in these areas,
but the remaining Asian multituberculates co-existed with rodents with no observable
replacement taking place, and ultimately both clades co-existed for at least 15 million
years.The history of the colonization of the world’s continents by rodents is complex. The movements of the large superfamily Muroidea
(including hamsters, gerbils, true mice and rats) may have involved up to seven colonizations
of Africa, five of North America, four of Southeast Asia, two of South America and up
to ten of Eurasia. During the Eocene, rodents began to diversify. Beavers appeared in Eurasia in the late Eocene
before spreading to North America in the late Miocene. Late in the Eocene, hystricognaths invaded
Africa, most probably having originated in Asia at least 39.5 million years ago. From Africa, fossil evidence shows that some
hystricognaths (caviomorphs) colonized South America, which was an isolated continent at
the time, evidently making use of ocean currents to cross the Atlantic on floating debris. Caviomorphs had arrived in South America by
41 million years ago (implying a date at least as early as this for hystricognaths in Africa),
and had reached the Greater Antilles by the early Oligocene, suggesting that they must
have dispersed rapidly across South America.Nesomyid rodents are thought to have rafted from Africa
to Madagascar 20–24 million years ago. All 27 species of native Malagasy rodents
appear to be descendants of a single colonization event. By 20 million years ago, fossils recognizably
belonging to the current families such as Muridae had emerged. By the Miocene, when Africa had collided with
Asia, African rodents such as the porcupine began to spread into Eurasia. Some fossil species were very large in comparison
to modern rodents and included the giant beaver, Castoroides ohioensis, which grew to a length
of 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) and weight of 100 kg (220 lb). The largest known rodent was Josephoartigasia
monesi, a pacarana with an estimated body length of 3 m (10 ft).The first rodents arrived
in Australia via Indonesia around 5 million years ago. Although marsupials are the most prominent
mammals in Australia, many rodents, all belonging to the subfamily Murinae, are among the continent’s
mammal species. There are about fifty species of ‘old endemics’,
the first wave of rodents to colonize the country in the Miocene and early Pliocene,
and eight true rat (Rattus) species of ‘new endemics’, arriving in a subsequent wave in
the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. The earliest fossil rodents in Australia have
a maximum age of 4.5 million years, and molecular data is consistent with the colonization of
New Guinea from the west during the late Miocene or early Pliocene followed by rapid diversification. A further wave of adaptive radiation occurred
after one or more colonizations of Australia some 2 to 3 million years later.Rodents participated
in the Great American Interchange that resulted from the joining of the Americas by formation
of the Isthmus of Panama, around 3 million years ago in the Piacenzian age. In this exchange, a small number of species
such as the New World porcupines (Erethizontidae) headed north. However, the main southward invasion of sigmodontines
preceded formation of the land bridge by at least several million years, probably occurring
via rafting. Sigmodontines diversified explosively once
in South America, although some degree of diversification may have already occurred
in Central America before the colonization. Their “head start” has relegated other North
American rodent groups (sciurids, geomyids, heteromyids and nonsigmodontine cricetids)
to a minor presence in the contemporary South American fauna.===Standard classification===
The use of the order name “Rodentia” is attributed to the English traveler and naturalist Thomas
Edward Bowdich (1821). The Modern Latin word Rodentia is derived
from rodens, present participle of rodere – “to gnaw”, “eat away”. The hares, rabbits and pikas (order Lagomorpha)
have continuously growing incisors, as do rodents, and were at one time included in
the order. However, they have an additional pair of incisors
in the upper jaw and the two orders have quite separate evolutionary histories. The phylogeny of the rodents places them in
the clades Glires, Euarchontoglires and Boreoeutheria. The cladogram below shows the inner and outer
relations of Rodentia based on a 2012 attempt by Wu et al. to align the molecular clock
with paleontological data: The living rodent families based on the study
done by Fabre et al. 2012. The order Rodentia may be divided into suborders,
infraorders, superfamilies and families. There is a great deal of parallelism and convergence
among rodents caused by the fact that they have tended to evolve to fill largely similar
niches. This parallel evolution includes not only
the structure of the teeth, but also the infraorbital region of the skull (below the eye socket)
and makes classification difficult as similar traits may not be due to common ancestry. Brandt (1855) was the first to propose dividing
Rodentia into three suborders, Sciuromorpha, Hystricomorpha and Myomorpha, based on the
development of certain muscles in the jaw and this system was widely accepted. Schlosser (1884) performed a comprehensive
review of rodent fossils, mainly using the cheek teeth, and found that they fitted into
the classical system, but Tullborg (1899) proposed just two sub-orders, Sciurognathi
and Hystricognathi. These were based on the degree of inflection
of the lower jaw and were to be further subdivided into Sciuromorpha, Myomorpha, Hystricomorpha
and Bathyergomorpha. Matthew (1910) created a phylogenetic tree
of New World rodents but did not include the more problematic Old World species. Further attempts at classification continued
without agreement, with some authors adopting the classical three suborder system and others
Tullborg’s two suborders. These disagreements remain unresolved, nor
have molecular studies fully resolved the situation though they have confirmed the monophyly
of the group and that the clade has descended from a common Paleocene ancestor. Carleton and Musser (2005) in Mammal Species
of the World have provisionally adopted a five suborder system: Sciuromorpha, Castorimorpha,
Myomorpha, Anomaluromorpha, and Hystricomorpha. These include 33 families, 481 genera and
2277 species. Order Rodentia (from Latin, rodere, to gnaw) Suborder Anomaluromorpha
Family Anomaluridae: scaly-tailed squirrels Family Pedetidae: springhares
Suborder Castorimorpha Superfamily Castoroidea
Family Castoridae: beavers Superfamily Geomyoidea
Family Geomyidae: pocket gophers (true gophers) Family Heteromyidae: kangaroo rats, kangaroo
mice Suborder Hystricomorpha
Infraorder Ctenodactylomorphi Family Ctenodactylidae: gundis
Infraorder Hystricognathi Family Bathyergidae: African mole rats
Family Hystricidae: Old World porcupines Family Petromuridae: dassie rat
Family Thryonomyidae: cane ratsParvorder Caviomorpha Family †Heptaxodontidae: giant hutias
Family Abrocomidae: chinchilla rats Family Capromyidae: hutias
Family Caviidae: cavies, including Guinea pigs and the capybara
Family Chinchillidae: chinchillas, viscachas Family Ctenomyidae: tuco-tucos
Family Dasyproctidae: agoutis Family Cuniculidae: pacas
Family Dinomyidae: pacaranas Family Echimyidae: spiny rats
Family Erethizontidae: New World porcupines Family Myocastoridae: coypu (nutria)
Family Octodontidae: octodonts Infraorder Incertae sedis
Family Diatomyidae: Laotian rock rat Suborder Myomorpha
Superfamily Dipodoidea Family Dipodidae: jerboas and jumping mice
Superfamily Muroidea Family Calomyscidae: mouse-like hamsters
Family Cricetidae: hamsters, New World rats and mice, muskrats, voles, lemmings
Family Muridae: true mice and rats, gerbils, spiny mice, crested rat
Family Nesomyidae: climbing mice, rock mice, white-tailed rat, Malagasy rats and mice
Family Platacanthomyidae: spiny dormice Family Spalacidae: mole rats, bamboo rats,
zokors Suborder Sciuromorpha
Family Aplodontiidae: mountain beaver Family Gliridae (also Myoxidae, Muscardinidae):
dormice Family Sciuridae: squirrels, including chipmunks,
prairie dogs, marmots==Interaction with humans=====
Conservation===While rodents are not the most seriously threatened
order of mammals, there are 168 species in 126 genera that are said to warrant conservation
attention in the face of limited appreciation by the public. Since 76 percent of rodent genera contain
only one species, much phylogenetic diversity could be lost with a comparatively small number
of extinctions. In the absence of more detailed knowledge
of species at risk and accurate taxonomy, conservation must be based mainly on higher
taxa (such as families rather than species) and geographical hot spots. Several species of rice rat have become extinct
since the 19th century, probably through habitat loss and the introduction of alien species. In Colombia, the brown hairy dwarf porcupine
was recorded from only two mountain localities in the 1920s, while the red crested soft-furred
spiny rat is known only from its type locality on the Caribbean coast, so these species are
considered vulnerable. The IUCN Species Survival Commission writes
“We can safely conclude that many South American rodents are seriously threatened, mainly by
environmental disturbance and intensive hunting”.The “three now cosmopolitan commensal rodent pest
species” (the brown rat, the black rat and the house mouse) have been dispersed in association
with humans, partly on sailing ships in the Age of Exploration, and with a fourth species
in the Pacific, the Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans), have severely damaged island biotas
around the world. For example, when the black rat reached Lord
Howe Island in 1918, over 40 percent of the terrestrial bird species of the island, including
the Lord Howe fantail, became extinct within ten years. Similar destruction has been seen on Midway
Island (1943) and Big South Cape Island (1962). Conservation projects can with careful planning
completely eradicate these pest rodents from islands using an anticoagulant rodenticide
such as brodifacoum. This approach has been successful on the island
of Lundy in the United Kingdom, where the eradication of an estimated 40,000 brown rats
is giving populations of Manx shearwater and Atlantic puffin a chance to recover from near-extinction.===Exploitation===Humanity has long used animal skins for clothing,
as the leather is durable and the fur provides extra insulation. The native people of North America made much
use of beaver pelts, tanning and sewing them together to make robes. Europeans appreciated the quality of these
and the North American fur trade developed and became of prime importance to early settlers. In Europe, the soft underfur known as “beaver
wool” was found to be ideal for felting and was made into beaver hats and trimming for
clothing. Later, the coypu took over as a cheaper source
of fur for felting and was farmed extensively in America and Europe; however, fashions changed,
new materials became available and this area of the animal fur industry declined. The chinchilla has a soft and silky coat and
the demand for its fur was so high that it was nearly wiped out in the wild before farming
took over as the main source of pelts. The quills and guardhairs of porcupines are
used for traditional decorative clothing. For example, their guardhairs are used in
the creation of the Native American “porky roach” headdress. The main quills may be dyed, and then applied
in combination with thread to embellish leather accessories such as knife sheaths and leather
bags. Lakota women would harvest the quills for
quillwork by throwing a blanket over a porcupine and retrieving the quills it left stuck in
the blanket.====Consumption====
At least 89 species of rodent, mostly Hystricomorpha such as guinea pigs, agoutis and capybaras,
are eaten by humans; in 1985, there were at least 42 different societies in which people
eat rats. Guinea pigs were first raised for food around
2500 B.C. and by 1500 B.C. had become the main source of meat for the Inca Empire. Dormice were raised by the Romans in special
pots called “gliraria”, or in large outdoor enclosures, where they were fattened on walnuts,
chestnuts, and acorns. The dormice were also caught from the wild
in autumn when they were fattest, and either roasted and dipped into honey or baked while
stuffed with a mixture of pork, pine nuts, and other flavorings. Researchers found that in Amazonia, where
large mammals were scarce, pacas and common agoutis accounted for around 40 percent of
the annual game taken by the indigenous people, but in forested areas where larger mammals
were abundant, these rodents constituted only about 3 percent of the take.Guinea pigs are
used in the cuisine of Cuzco, Peru, in dishes such as cuy al horno, baked guinea pig. The traditional Andean stove, known as a qoncha
or a fogón, is made from mud and clay reinforced with straw and hair from animals such as guinea
pigs. In Peru, there are at any time 20 million
domestic guinea pigs, which annually produce 64 million edible carcasses. This animal is an excellent food source since
the flesh is 19% protein. In the United States, mostly squirrels, but
also muskrats, porcupines, and ground hogs are eaten by humans. The Navajo people ate prairie dog baked in
mud, while the Paiute ate gophers, squirrels, and rats.====Animal testing====Rodents are used widely as model organisms
in animal testing. Albino mutant rats were first used for research
in 1828 and later became the first animal domesticated for purely scientific purposes. Nowadays, the house mouse is the most commonly
used laboratory rodent, and in 1979 it was estimated that fifty million were used annually
worldwide. They are favored because of their small size,
fertility, short gestation period and ease of handling and because they are susceptible
to many of the conditions and infections that afflict humans. They are used in research into genetics, developmental
biology, cell biology, oncology and immunology. Guinea pigs were popular laboratory animals
until the late 20th century; about 2.5 million guinea pigs were used annually in the United
States for research in the 1960s, but that total decreased to about 375,000 by the mid-1990s. In 2007, they constituted about 2% of all
laboratory animals. Guinea pigs played a major role in the establishment
of germ theory in the late 19th century, through the experiments of Louis Pasteur, Émile Roux,
and Robert Koch. They have been launched into orbital space
flight several times—first by the USSR on the Sputnik 9 biosatellite of March 9, 1961,
with a successful recovery. The naked mole rat is the only known mammal
that is poikilothermic; it is used in studies on thermoregulation. It is also unusual in not producing the neurotransmitter
substance P, a fact which researchers find useful in studies on pain.Rodents have sensitive
olfactory abilities, which have been used by humans to detect odors or chemicals of
interest. The Gambian pouched rat is able to detect
tuberculosis bacilli with a sensitivity of up to 86.6%, and specificity (detecting the
absence of the bacilli) of over 93%; the same species has been trained to detect land mines. Rats have been studied for possible use in
hazardous situations such as in disaster zones. They can be trained to respond to commands,
which may be given remotely, and even persuaded to venture into brightly lit areas, which
rats usually avoid.===As pets===
Rodents including guinea pigs, mice, rats, hamsters, gerbils, chinchillas, degus and
chipmunks make convenient pets able to live in small spaces, each species with its own
qualities. Most are normally kept in cages of suitable
sizes and have varied requirements for space and social interaction. If handled from a young age, they are usually
docile and do not bite. Guinea pigs have a long lifespan and need
a large cage. Rats also need plenty of space and can become
very tame, can learn tricks and seem to enjoy human companionship. Mice are short-lived but take up very little
space. Hamsters are solitary but tend to be nocturnal. They have interesting behaviors, but unless
handled regularly they may be defensive. Gerbils are not usually aggressive, rarely
bite and are sociable animals that enjoy the company of humans and their own kind.===As pests and disease vectors===Some rodent species are serious agricultural
pests, eating large quantities of food stored by humans. For example, in 2003, the amount of rice lost
to mice and rats in Asia was estimated to be enough to feed 200 million people. Most of the damage worldwide is caused by
a relatively small number of species, chiefly rats and mice. In Indonesia and Tanzania, rodents reduce
crop yields by around fifteen percent, while in some instances in South America losses
have reached ninety percent. Across Africa, rodents including Mastomys
and Arvicanthis damage cereals, groundnuts, vegetables and cacao. In Asia, rats, mice and species such as Microtus
brandti, Meriones unguiculatus and Eospalax baileyi damage crops of rice, sorghum, tubers,
vegetables and nuts. In Europe, as well as rats and mice, species
of Apodemus, Microtus and in occasional outbreaks Arvicola terrestris cause damage to orchards,
vegetables and pasture as well as cereals. In South America, a wider range of rodent
species, such as Holochilus, Akodon, Calomys, Oligoryzomys, Phyllotis, Sigmodon and Zygodontomys,
damage many crops including sugar cane, fruits, vegetables, and tubers.Rodents are also significant
vectors of disease. The black rat, with the fleas that it carries,
plays a primary role in spreading the bacterium Yersinia pestis responsible for bubonic plague,
and carries the organisms responsible for typhus, Weil’s disease, toxoplasmosis and
trichinosis. A number of rodents carry hantaviruses, including
the Puumala, Dobrava and Saaremaa viruses, which can infect humans. Rodents also help to transmit diseases including
babesiosis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Lyme disease, Omsk
hemorrhagic fever, Powassan virus, rickettsialpox, relapsing fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever,
and West Nile virus. Because rodents are a nuisance and endanger
public health, human societies often attempt to control them. Traditionally, this involved poisoning and
trapping, methods that were not always safe or effective. More recently, integrated pest management
attempts to improve control with a combination of surveys to determine the size and distribution
of the pest population, the establishment of tolerance limits (levels of pest activity
at which to intervene), interventions, and evaluation of effectiveness based on repeated
surveys. Interventions may include education, making
and applying laws and regulations, modifying the habitat, changing farming practices, and
biological control using pathogens or predators, as well as poisoning and trapping. The use of pathogens such as Salmonella has
the drawback that they can infect man and domestic animals, and rodents often become
resistant. The use of predators including ferrets, mongooses
and monitor lizards has been found unsatisfactory. Domestic and feral cats are able to control
rodents effectively, provided the rodent population is not too large. In the UK, two species in particular, the
house mouse and the brown rat, are actively controlled to limit damage in growing crops,
loss and contamination of stored crops and structural damage to facilities, as well as
to comply with the law.==See also==
Mouse models of breast cancer metastasis Fe, Fi, Fo, Fum, and Phooey, mice who orbited
the Moon on Apollo 17

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